Thursday, July 13, 2006
Organisation Effectiveness & Change – Prof Satyajyoti De
VIRTUAL ORGANISATION – in knowledge based industries like IT industry.
ORGANISATION CLIMATE & CULTURE
It is the ability to maximize the results in the competitive external environment.
The ability to sustain superior results over the time.
ALIGNMENT OF FACTORS FOR ORGANISATION EFFECTIVENESS
Process & Systems
Environment & Culture
Organizational Culture (discuss in details later)
Organisation Structure (we have read – book : Stroler or Freeman)
SPAN OF CONTROL
High Span of Control – A person does his work + he does others work.
Low Span of Control – A person does only his own work.
INTERCONNECTED FACTORS FOR ORGANISATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS PROFILING CULTURE / BEHAVIOUR
Management Style & Behaviour
Core Values & Behaviour
Sense of purpose, confidence & ability
STRATEGIC INTENT (what the organisation want to do)
Organisation Purpose & Intent
Business Plans & Objectives
Strategic Resource Allocation – allocation of resources property as resources are limited.
Reporting Performance Management – measuring your performance with standard.
Information & communication Equipment – communication methodology and chain.
System Software Document
International Information Transfer
Coordinating Mechanism – it is from point of view of organisation, technical systems, organisational systems.
It is a nature of employee’s perception of those aspects of their environment (both external and internal), which directly impact how well they do their job.
(this word has a hollow effect – it means how you feel about something based on your own experience. All have some interest with the organisation – perception is important word here)
16th June, 2006 – Organisation Effectiveness & Change – Prof Satyajyoti De
6 DIMENSIONS OF ORGANISATION CLIMATE
FLEXIBILITY – Bureaucracy minimized and motivation encouraged.
RESPONSIBILITY – Sufficient Autonomy & reasonable risk taking encouraged.
STANDARDS – Excellence is the standard & continual improvement is encouraged.
REWARDS – Good performance is recognized & rewards recognitions are only performance based
CLARITY – The work unit mission is clear and now roles relate.
There is pride (commitment), dedication and cooperation among unit members.
MANAGEMENT, STYLE, SYSTEM, CHARACTERISTICS
ORGANISATION – Nature of organisation & rigidity to rules regulations & procedure.
VALUES – Personal beliefs & values as to show to treat people (eg: Douglas Mc Gregor Theory X & Theory Y)
PERSONAL HISTROY – Preference to particular approach on experiential learning of past experiences.
CHANCE – Providing of lack of chances for applying particular style of functioning.
RENESIS LIVERT’S 4 FOLD MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
1) Exploitative Authoritative
2) Benevolent Authoritative
ORGANISATION CHARACTERISTICS VARIABLE LINKING TO 4 SYSTEMS
1) Leadership Process
2) Motivational Process
3) Decision Making Process
4) Communication Process
5) Goal Setting Process
7) Interaction & Influence Process
Culture consists of learned mode of behaviour that is socially transmitted from one generation to the next and from one society or individual to another – J.W.STEWARD.
1) Culture is a shared system of meaning which functions as a process leading to automatic solutions to frequently meaning problems. – FONS TOMPENAARS (this definition is respected in the world)
2) Culture is a common perception held by the organizations members a system of shared meaning. – STEPHEN. P. ROBBINS.
A pattern of basic assumption inented, discovered or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problem of external adaptations and internal integration – that has worked well enough to be considered valuable and therefore to be taught to the new members as the correct way to perceive ; think & fell in relation to that problem. – EDGER SCHEN (Beautiful definition)
IMPORTANCE OF STUDE OF ORGANISATION CULTURE.
1) It gives organisational identity to its employers – a defining vision of what organisation represents.
2) Important source of stability & continuity to the organisation.
3) Provide sense of security to its members.
4) Help new employees to interpret what goes on inside the organisation.
5) Culture help stimulate employee enthusiasm for their task.
19th June, 2006 – Organisation Effectiveness & Change – Prof Satyajyoti De
ATTRIBUTION THEORY – As our perceptions are different the same action gives rise to different repercussions. (Douglas Mc Gregor – Theory X and Theory Y)
CULTURE is something that he people has found out at some point of time to solve a problem & these are percolated down the line.
Eg: Superstitions – wearing a chain at some point of time made a batsman success in a particular day & that made him feel that it its because of the chain the problem was solved (he batted well). It becomes a culture for the player to wear the chain in every match.
Main foundation on which the culture is based on the organisation
DISTINCTIVE – What makes it different from another organisation.
STABLE – Changing or forced to stay culture base too often.
IMPLICIT – Culture is internationalized. Culture of an organisation is a matter both of perception by employees & sincere practices by the organisation of its values, ethics & procedures.
SYMBOLIC – Representation of underlying values belief.
NO-ONE-BEST – Culture of an organisation being distinctive it is erroneous to sit on judgment, which is better than the other as the culture is of an organisation is inverted, discovered or developed based on its specific problems, situations and circumstances and the mode of evolving solutions.
STRATEGIES FOR STRENTHENING ORGANISATION CULTURE.
Distinctive – What makes it distinctive form another organisation.
Stable – Not changing or forced to change too often.
Implicit – Culture is internalized
Symbolic – Representation of underlying belief, values.
No one best (don’t make comparison)– Cultural base varies with organizations mission goal, business environment.
Integrated – Elements are generally not in divergence.
Accepted – Culture base is valued and accepted by employees.
Top Management - Culture is evolved and flows down from top management.
Subculture – Not many subcultures evolve.
Strength – Now is viewed, strong or weak by people in general.
23rd June, 2006 – Organisation Effectiveness & Change – Prof Satyajyoti De
CHARACTERISTICS OF ORGANISATION CULTURE
MEMBER IDENTITY – Identification with organisation as a whole or with job specialization.
GROUP EMPHASIS – Activities central around group or individual.
PEOPLE FOCES – Concern of the management the effects of its decision on people or tasks.
UNIT INTEGRATION – Concepts on the principle of mutual interdependence amongst the units in multi unit organisation.
CONTROL – High or Low adherence to rules regulation procedures i.e. how bureaucratic. (Managing a situation)
RISK TOLERANE – Degree of Risk taking is encouraged. (Allow people to take risk)
REWARD CRITERIA – Degree of awarding rewards based on performance or other factors. (Unless given rewards, workers wont work properly)
CONFLICT TOLERANCE – How much employee are encouraged to discuss conflicts & criticisms openly. (Conflict is wrong, that is a traditional idea, but sometimes it is helpful)
MEANS-END ORIENTATION – What is important for management - final result or the means whatever be the process or method. (These 2 words are used in a personality trait factor in OB) (If end justifies the job then people are free to do whatever they like.)
OPEN SYSTEM FOCUS – Receptibility or external internal environmental change. (You are not traditionally tied up with your way of work)
These factors given above are not that constitute the culture of organisation. It shows the type of organisation)
What I am doing to achieve my goal is my characteristic and not my culture.
IMPACT OF ORGANISATION ON INDIVIDUAL
Empowerment is a process that increases the task motivation.
What increases the task motivation?
1) IMPACT - When employees realize the task performed make a difference in terms of accomplishing the task purpose.
2) COMPETENCE - A skilful performance of task has effects of competence.
3) MEANINGFULNESS – When employees care for what they do it provides meaningfulness.
4) CHOICE – Tasks provide choices if it allow the employees self determination in performing task objectives.
IMPLICATION AND MANAGEMENT ACTIONS
1) DELEGATE AUTHORITY – Use Participative Decision Making
2) ENCOURAGE SELF MANAGEMENT – Job enrichment create self managed work teams, create tasks that provide intrinsic feedback.
3) INSTALL UPWARD PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL - Lessen formalities, create supportive culture.
4) ENCOURAGE GOAL SETTING – Educate & train employees.
BARRIERS TO EMPOWERMENT
1) EMPLOYMENT GOAL INCONGRUENT TO ORGANISATION CULTURE -
a) Lack of employee commitment,
b) fail to share organisation goal,
c) fear of retribution
2) RELUCTANCE OF MANAGERS – Managers having fear of being held responsible for mistake of others and loss of position or power.
3) Hiring people having low need for autonomy.
4) EXISTANCE OF BUREAUCRATIC AND AUTOCRATIC TYPE OF MANAGEMENT – Style with high belief in traditional pyramidal & hierarchical organisation.