Tuesday, August 29, 2006
Organisation Effectiveness & Change - Part II – Prof Satyajyoti De
STRATEGIES FOR MERGING DIFFERENT ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE
CONFLICT: Conflict in any situation in which two or more parties feel themselves in opposition. It is an interpersonal process that arises from disagreements over the goal to attain or methods to be used to accomplish.
CONFLICT: It is a process that begins with one party perceives that another party has negatively affected or is about to negatively affect something that the first party cares about.
-STEPHEN. P. ROBBINS
TRANSITION IN CONFLICT THOUGHTS
A) TRADITIONAL VIEW- Believes that all conflicts are harmful and must be avoided.
B) HUMAN RELATIONS- Believes that conflicts are a natural and inevitable outcome in any group.
C) INTERACTIONIST VIEW- Believes that conflict is not a positive in a group but that it is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively.
D) FUNCTIONAL v/s DYSFUNCTIONAL VIEW- The criterion that differentiates a functional view from a dysfunctional conflict is a group performance. Functional conflict supports the goal of the group and improves its performance. Dysfunctional conflict hinders group performances.
STAGES OF CONFLICT PROCESS
Stage 1 – May arise because of personal variables.
Stage 2 – Cognition or personalization.
Stage 3 – Decision to act in a given way.
Stage 4 – Behavioral pattern
Stage 5 – Outcome
CONFLICT RESOLUTION PROCESS, CAUSE OF CONFLICT
a) Organisational change
b) Personality clash
c) Different sets of values
d) Threat to status
e) Contrasting perception
f) Lack of trust
(perception of other parties, how they will behave)
Functional or Dysfunctional
(2 parties who are in conflict)
Winning v/s Loosing – Every party wants to win. Boss is the sufferer as he is deprived of certain situation.)
Confronting (There is no organisation that do not have a conflict. Even RK Mission has conflicts.)
12th July, 2006 – Organisation Effectiveness & Change – Prof Satyajyoti De
Stakeholder = shareholder + customer + others
Stakeholders help in effective running of the organisation. All the stakeholders have different interest, claim from the company.
(In what way they are connected to the organisation)
SHAREHOLDERS – Profit + ROI
CUSTOMER – Price + Quality + Service + Market Share
SUPPLIERS – Terms of Contract + Payment
CREDITORS – Credit worthiness
EMPLOYEES – Job satisfaction + Remuneration + Work Environment + Quality of Work Life
GOVERNMENT – Law Abiding + Tax + Welfare to employees the family members
SOCIETY – Social Responsibility + Awareness towards Ecology & Pollution.
O C T A PA C E
These are 8 different activities on which the organisation works & success of the organisation depends on the OCTAPACE.
O = OPENNESS & RISK TAKING
Openness – Works with open mind. Eg: Connection to Internet & information accessibility for all.
C = CONFRONTATION
Confrontation – Whenever there is a problem – don’t shy way from it – simply try to resolve it – this is not a clash between two persons.
Trust – When somebody tells you something in the organisation you need not necessarily suspect that man. Trust that man. So we repose trust on the other person’s behaviour.
A = AUTHENTICITY
Authenticity – While communicating, don’t think whether it has some authenticity or not. When you give information to other, say something factual.
P = PROACTIVE
Proactive – React to a situation in response to a stimulus is being Reactive. Doing something out of initiative is being Proactive.
A = AUTONOMY
Autonomy - You ask the people in your organisation to perform som
e task without too much supervision, freedom, independence, giving them job satisfaction.
C = COLLABORATION
Collaboration – Every one of us are dependent on someone or other.
People have 2 notions
1) Omnipotence – I can do everything. Independence. It is a wrong concept. No one can be fully independent.
2) Impotence – I cannot do anything.
Between the above 2 there is a concept called MUTUAL INTERDEPENDENCE. Say small children are dependent on parents. Similarly mother is also dependent on the child for love & affection.
So collaboration comes from concept of mutual interdependence. Say you are a HR Manager. But you cannot function in organisation unless you now technical functioning, and so on. So in certain cases technical manager can collaborate with financial manager & vice versa. Thus collaboration occurs.
E = EXPERIMENTATION
Experimentation – Autonomy & Proactive & Experimentation are connected, make experiment about new aspects of functioning of organisation & carry the organisation forward. We may not be aware but everyday something is happening in the organisation that carries the organisation forward.
These are the 8 pillars of Organisation Culture.
1) Write short notes on OCTAPACE.
2) How organisation effectiveness & culture can develop through this OCTAPACE?
DIMENSION OF CONFLICT HANDLING INTENTIONS
2 persons in conflict – perception of situation. I may not know what has been perceived by the Manager. So this is perception of conflict. I have been perceived as an assertive person but I see opponent is more collaborative.
14th July, 2006 – Organisation Effectiveness & Change – Prof Satyajyoti De
Any organisation + it is dynamic + objective of the organisation goal does not change + process of achieving the objective may change
2 REASONS FOR ORGANISATION CHANGE
1) REACTIVE CHANGE – because ofMacro Environmental condition (changes taking place outside borders of organisation) like merger, takeover, but organisation prepares to cope the change.
2) PROACTIVE CHANGE - Management Initiative – Changes the company wants to make within an organisation eg: procedure for Financial Management, Material Management, Human Resource Management.
So changes are made either in reactive or proactive way.
3) one way
1) PSYCHOLOGICAL – Changes a) Macro level b) Micro level
In Micro level changes people are affected because of
2) SYSTEMS – Indications in the Management
Eg: Study by scientists that evening birds flock together & fly together in a certain direction. They change their direction and move in another direction. They have noticed that the sense of direction of individual bird is much faster than a group of birds.
3) ONE WAY – As a whole, like quantum theory of physics, concept of change of the whole thing. When change takes place, all people try to accommodate each other in this situation.
Eg: Say a balloon is filled with air means it has air particles inside it. They are all arrested inside the boundary of the balloon, like the boundary of the organisation. If a pressure is applied on the surface of the balloon, the particles inside the balloon want to adjust themselves quickly. Thus all try to accommodate each other. This is the process of pressure change. It is the case of an organisation.
Macro Environmental Condition – Employees start adjusting them to the change in condition. Management tries to cope up with the pressure. It is called Macro Level Pressure.
FACTORS OF CHANGE
Organisation is dynamic. In an organisation whether we are putting a pressure from inside – organisation is established – goes through a life cycle- certain changes are seen – those changes are used in a 1) positive manner – they can be handled carefully.
Changes are of organisation: -
Change Management - approach to change
Gradual improvement of the organisation.
Change Agent – When change takes place in an organisation, a person or group of persons who implement in a manner that makes the change effective.
Change agent does not mean outsourcing.
It may be
21st July, 2006 – Organisation Effectiveness & Change – Prof Satyajyoti De
1) Richmond Beckhand
managed from top
1) Top Management – To increase organisational effectiveness through intervention.
2) Wendell French & Cecil Bell – tells everything about OD
Culture Intervention through change Agent (like catalyst)
Action Research – is a process by which when any change is made in an organisation certain exercises are followed like a research type of work.
3) Increasing organisation performance change attitude values, organisation structure, practices to improve organisation performance.
4) OD intervention is a scientific process through which we try to identify & diagnose the problem, find a solution to that. It is done by: -
1) Internal Change Agent –
2) External Change Agent –
FOUNDATION OF ORGANISATION DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
ORGANISATIONAL DEVELOPMENT INTERVENTION PROCESS
Eg: Family business with father & 2 sons. Disputes between the 2 brothers due to family influence.
VALUES & ASSUMPTIONS
Mechanical – Operational Pattern
Organic – Behavioral Pattern
28th July, 2006 – Organisation Effectiveness & Change – Prof Satyajyoti De
ORGANISATON LEARNING (learn from OB book) (VVVV Imp)
Interaction with people – continuous learning organisation has some goals & objectives – we come into close contact with them & judge whether they are correct or not –
We learn certain values & systems – double loop (Imp) + we change the values & system
Values, ethics – governing variable (these govern us)
1) I may follow the governing variables whatever may be the consequence. (single loop learning)
2) I may challenge them. (double loop learning)
Because of learning we can react to a situation in a different manner.
We act according to the Brain Map (Brain Theory) but we normally act according to our decisions.
Espoused Theory - If I do something other than my normal doings then it is a deliberate acting to make others know that I am acting in a different manner.
Eg: of Creativity (eg given in Luthans book)
Qs) How many different things you can do with a newspaper?
Cognitive – what is within me.
Divergent – thinking on different plains.
Individual Behaviour in organisational learning context.
Transference of knowledge which generates by creative thinking started from F.W.Taylor.
Change in workforce – by age, culture
Influx of people from different countries due to increase in investments.
Techno specific diversity – 7 specific diversity eg: agro product – fruits, (particular fruits in particular place)
Organisation is from some definite culture & they make certain diversity in workforce.
These may increase in future. So how can there be cultural convergence.
CASE OF DISCRIMINATION BY A MANAGER
Discrimination against the women – It is called the glass ceiling effect. It was coined in USA.
1) She cannot be placed to a place where there are only 5/6 employees.
2) She cannot be placed in a factory
3) She cannot be made to work at night
4) She cannot be raised after certain position.